Annotated Bibliography of Process-related Books

1.0  Introductory
1.1  For the general reader; very introductory
1.2  For the well-read general reader
1.3  For academics
1.4  Histories of process theology
1.5  Critiques of process theology

2.0   Traditional Doctrines
2.1  Biblical interpretation
2.2  Christology
2.3  Evil
2.4  Hope and eschatology
2.5  The Holy Spirit and the Trinity
2.6  Theological anthropology
3.0  The Church and its ministry
3.1  Religious education
3.2  Pastoral care
3.3  Prayer

4.0  Contemporary Theological Issues
4.1  Ecology and animal rights
4.2  Feminism
4.3  Political and Liberation Theology
4.4  Religious language
4.5  Science and Religion
4.6  Sexuality
4.7  Spirituality
4.8  World religions /religions pluralism

5.0  Philosophy of Religion
5.1  Whitehead
5.2  Whitehead secondary sources
5.3  Hartshorne
5.4  Hartshorne secondary sources
5.5  Cobb
5.6  Other authors

6.0  Process and Other Fields
6.1  Art, culture and language
6.2  Biological sciences
6.3  Education
6.4  Ethics and value theory
6.5  General
6.6  Philosophy of science
6.7  Physics and mathematics
6.8  Social sciences

7.0  Bibliographies

1.0 Introductory


1.1 For the General Reader - Very Introductory

Anderson, Alan, The Problem is God: The Selection and Care of Your Personal God. A lively guide to reflection about God.

Brizee, Robert, Where in the World is God? Explores relationships, among humans and between humans and the divine, using the image of God as Caring Friend.

Brizee, Robert & Adrienne and Gotthold, Julia, Dancing with the Divine: An Interactive Journey into God. This book is designed for anyone on a spiritual path who desires a closer relationship with God.

Cobb, Jr., John B., Process Theology: An Introductory Introduction, the title of a lecture deliverd by John B. Cobb, Jr., at the Claremont School of Theology in September, 2004. This booklet, printed by P&F Press, takes a biblical rather than a philosophical approach.

Cobb, Jr., John B, Liberal Christianity at the Crossroads. Based on sermons preached at the Church of the Crossroads in Honolulu.

Cobb, Jr., John B, Praying for Jennifer. A theological treatment of intercessory prayer in story form.

Cobb , John B., Jr., Why Whitehead?, is the title of a lecture delivered by John B. Cobb, Jr., at the 2003 Whitehead International Film Festival in Claremont, CA. In this booklet, Cobb provides compelling reasons for Whitehead's relevance-not just to film, but to the human community.

Cornell, George W., The Untamed God. A fresh theological statement by a well-known newspaper columnist deeply influenced by process theology.

Mesle, C. Robert, Process Theology: A Basic Introduction. A basic primer in the fundamentals of process theology, with a closing chapter by John Cobb on the relationship between process theism and process naturalism.

Muray, Leslie A., An Introduction to the Process Understanding of Science, Society and the Self: A Philosophy for Modern Society. Major tenets of process thought applied to a variety of topics, including politics, education, psychology, and others.

Rowlett, Martha, In Spirit and in Truth. A guide to the practice of prayer written for lay people.

Suchocki, Marjorie Hewitt, In God's Presence: Theological Reflections on Prayer. Prayer as partnership, not a manipulation, of God. Very accessible and informative.

Suchocki, Marjorie Hewitt, What Is Process Theology?: A Conversation With Marjorie. A great introduction to Process Theology in booklet form.

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1.2 For the Well-Read General Reader

Cargas, Harry James, and Lee, Bernard, eds. Religious Experience and Process Theology. A collection of essays emphasizing the relevance of process theology to Christian life and varying in readability.

Cobb, John B., Jr., The Process Perspective: Frequently Asked Questions about Process Theology. Cobb answers basic questions about God, Christ, biblical interpretation and the Bible, ethics, and spirituality, from a process perspective.

Cobb, John B., Jr.,God and the World. A presentation of process reasons for believing in God originally directed to college students.

Curtis, Charles, The Task of Philosophical Theology. Examines major Christian doctrines in terms of process conceptuality.

Gregorios, Paulos, The Human Presence. Relates process theology to classical Eastern Orthodox thinking.

Hamilton, Peter, The Living God and the Modern World. A comprehensive introduction to theology based on the thought of Whitehead.

Haught, John, What Is God? How to Think About the Divine. Whiteheadian and Jungian influenced approach for reflecting upon mystery in everyday life.

McFague, Sallie, Models of God: Theology for an Ecological, Nuclear Age. Systematic, constructive, innovative—part of McFague’s continuing experiment in “metaphorical theology” trying out different images for the divine.

Mellert, Robert, What is Process Theology? Another successful general introduction to process theology. The author is Roman Catholic.

Peters, Eugene H., The Creative Advance: An Introduction to Process Philosophy as a Context for Christian Faith. One of the first efforts to explain process theology to the general reader and still very usable.

Pittenger, Norman, Catholic Faith in Process Perspective. Of Pittenger's many books, this may be the best general statement.

Pittenger, Norman, God in Process. Brief discussion of God, Christ, the Holy Spirit, the church, and eschatology in process perspective.

Pittenger, Norman, Process Thought and Christian Faith. This earlier book is somewhat more descriptive of what Whitehead, Hartshorne, and others have said.

Potthoff, Harvey E, God and the Celebration of Life. A broad discussion of Christian faith and life correlated with a process doctrine of God.

Pregeant, Russell, Mystery Without Magic. A well-written text for use as an introduction to religious studies.

Rice, Richard, The Openness of God. A Seventh-Day Adventist theologian adopts most features of the process doctrine of God taking pains to explain where he differs.

Sponheim, Paul, Faith and Process: The Significance of Process Thought for Christian Faith. A careful explanation of how process concepts can assist Lutherans and others in the formulation of faith today.

Suchocki, Marjorie Hewitt, God, Christ, Church. Major theological topics presented in process perspective with feminist sensitivity.

Tracy, David Tracy Cobb, John B., Jr., Talking about God. Tracy ’s simplest statement of his highly nuanced theological method, together with essays by Cobb on God in relation to science, Buddhism, and feminism.

Wieman, Henry Nelson, Science Serving Faith, edited by Creighton Peden and Charles Willig. A good introduction to Wieman’s thought, developed by the editors from a manuscript and notes.
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1.3 For Academics

Baltazar, Eulalio R., God Within Process. A Roman Catholic theologian uses Teilhardian categories to reconcile science with theology.

Baltazar, Eulalio R., The Dark Center: A Process Theology of Blackness. Using depth psychology and Teilhardian categories, the author shows the positive aspects of blackness.

Brown, Delwin; James, Ralph; and Reeves, Gene, eds., Process Philosophy and Christian Thought. A wide-ranging collection of essays that give a good indication of the variety of authors and ideas included in the community of process theology.

Cobb, John B., Jr., and Griffin, David Ray,  Process Theology: An Introductory Exposition. Unlike Williams, this book talks about process theology and the arguments in its favor—less rich in development of particular theological ideas other than God.

Cousins, Ewert ed., Process Theology. A collection of essays and book chapters by Whiteheadian and Teilhardian writers.

Griffin, David Ra, and Altizer,Thomas, eds., John Cobb 's Theology in Process. Critical responses to Cobb’s theology together with his replies.

Ogden, Schubert M., On Theology. Ogden considers the meaning and truth of the Christian witness in light of common human experience.

Ogden, Schubert M., The Reality of God. The fullest statement of Ogden ’s distinctive formulation of the process doctrine of God and arguments for it.

Pailin, David A., God and the Processes of Reality: Foundations of a Credible Theism. Defends the panenthesim of Whitehead and Hartshorne as an important way of understanding the relationship between God and the processes of reality.

Tracy, David, Blessed Rage for Order. A foundational theology closely related to Ogden ’s but drawing on the whole range of recent theological thinking.

Sia, Santiago, ed., Process Theology and the Christian Doctrine of God. A collection of essays focusing upon Hartshorne’s doctrine of God.

Williams, Daniel Day, The Spirit and Forms of Love. The best systematic theology from the process perspective, treating a wide range of traditional theological topics.

Williams, Daniel Day, Essays in Process Theology. A collection of some of Williams’ finest essays.

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1.4 Histories of Process Theology

Arnold, Charles Harvey, Near the Edge of the Battle: A Short History of the DivinitySchool and the"Chicago School of Theology" 1866-1966. A former student (1950s) of the school takes a look at its history.

Dean, William, American Religious Empiricism. American empirical theology is viewed as postmodern—from Jonathan Edwards to the present.

Dean, William, History Making History: The New Historicism in American Religious Thought. Locates the Chicago school within the larger flow of American thought.

Lucas, Jr., George R., Outside the Camp: Recent Work in Whitehead’s Philosophy, Part One, Transactions of the Charles S. Pierce Society, Vol. 21, No. I (Winter 1985), pp. 49-75. Discusses recent studies on the topics of freedom, agency, and endurance, and "naturalism and the status of the past."

Lucas, Jr., George R., Outside the Camp: Recent Work in Whitehead’s Philosophy, Part Two, Transactions of the Charles S. Pierce Society, Vol. 21, No. 3 (Summer 1985), pp. 327-382. Includes summaries of recent studies in exegetics, the philosophy of nature, and the philosophy of theology.

Miller, Randolph Crump,The American Spirit in Theology. The variety in liberal American religious thought is outlined, including radical empiricism, pragmatism, instrumentalism, process theology, etc.

Peden, Creighton, The Chicago School: Voices in Liberal Religious Thought. An exposition of the views of even early 20th-century members of the Chicago School of the Divinity School, University of Chicago.

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1.5 Critiques of Process Thought

Basinger, David, Divine Power in Process Theism: A Philosophical Critique. Clearly written critique focusing upon the issue of divine power as viewed by process theologians and classical theology.

Gruenler, Royce Gordon, The Inexhaustible God: Biblical Faith and the Challenge of Process Theism. An evangelical (and former process theologian) demonstrates the superiority of biblical theology to process theology.

Nash, Ronald, ed., Process Theology. A collection of essays by evangelical theologians critically assessing process theology.

Neville, Robert, Creativity and God: A Challenge to Process Theology. Whiteheadian process theology is critiqued—as basically incoherent, inadequate to religious experience,  failing to adequately address basic ontological issues, and more.

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2.0 Traditional Doctrines

Many readers have special interest in particular traditional theological topics. The books listed in this section vary in difficulty, but they are all written for the general theological reader from the process perspective. None presupposes prior knowledge of process theology.

2.1 Biblical Interpretation

Beardslee, William and Lull, David, eds., Old Testament Interpretation from a Process Perspective. Semeia 24, 1982. Exegetical and expository essays. New Testament Interpretation from a Process Perspective. Journal of the American Academy of Religion, Vol. 47, No. 1. Exegetical essays together with an account of how process thought has been related to biblical studies.

Ford, Lewis, The Lure of God. Process philosophical theology integrated with Old Testament interpretation.
Farmer, Ronald L., Beyond the Impasse: The Promise of a Process Hermeneutic. Macon, Ga: Mercer University Press, 1997.

Lull, David, The Spirit in Galatia. Process ideas are used to illumine Paul’s doctrine of the Holy Spirit.

Pregeant, Russell, Christology Beyond Dogma. Emphasizes human responsibility in Jesus’ message.

Williamson, Clark, ed., Process Philosophy and Biblical Theology. Encounter, Vol. 36, No. 4. Papers from a conference held at Christian Theological Seminary.

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2.2 Christology

Cobb, John, Christ in a Pluralistic Age. Emphasizes God’s incarnation in the world and the distinctive form it took in Jesus.

Ogden, Schubert, The Point of Christology. Although Ogden is a leading process theologian, his distinctive Christology is especially shaped in its dialogue with Bultmann. Rita Brock, Journeys by Heart: A Christology of Erotic Power. Feminist approach to salvaging and transforming the image/power of Christ from its patriarchal limitations.

Pittenger, Norman, Christology Reconsidered. The most readable process Christology, emphasizing the continuity of Jesus with others. David R. Griffin, A Process Christology. Emphasizes how the belief that Jesus is the decisive revelation of God can be illumined by process philosophy.

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2.3 Evil

Davis, Stephen T., Professor, Encountering Evil. Live options in theodicy.

Griffin, David Ray, God, Power, and Evil: A Process Theodicy. A demonstration of process theology’s claim to deal satisfactorily with the problem of theodicy, together with detailed critique of other positions.

Griffin, David Ray, How are God and Evil Related? A P&F hard issues booklet. Copyright 1988, revised 2001.

Kushner, Rabbi Harold, When Bad Things Happen to Good People. Bestseller, not heavily influenced by process thought, but very compatible.

Pittenger, Norman, Goodness Distorted. The centrality of love makes possible a triumph over evil.

Suchocki, Marjorie, The Fall to Violence: Original Sin in Relational Theology. Reframes original sin as unnecessary violence against anything in existence, therefore a rebellion against the well-being of creation.

Suchocki, Marjorie, The End of Evil, Process eschatology in historical context.

Whitney,Barry, Evil and the Process God. A clear statement of what process thinkers, especially Hartshorne, have said on theodicy.

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2.4 Hope and Eschatology

Beardslee, William, A House for Hope. Hope is related to the open-endedness of the future together with the assurance of God’s working in the world and of our life in God.

Pittenger, Norman, The ‘Last Things' in a Process Perspective. Surveys and interprets the range of eschatological themes in traditional Christianity.

Suchocki,Marjorie, The End of Evil: Process Eschatology in Historical Context. A feminist, Whiteheadian response to the issues of evil, theodicy, and eschatology--historical, philosophical, and theological.

Williams, Daniel Day, God's Grace and Man’s Hope. Rich theological discussion with Reinhold Niebuhr and others.

2.5 The Holy Spirit and the Trinity

Joseph Bracken, The Triune Symbol. Suggests that process categories enable us to understand three persons as truly united into one.

Pittenger, Norman, The Holy Spirit. One of the best general expositions of the doctrine of the Holy Spirit. This one is explicitly written from the process perspective.

Pittenger, Norman, The Divine Triunity. Historical and systematic formulation emphasizing the divine unity.

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2.6 Theological Anthropology

Cobb, John, The Structure of Christian Existence. Locates and describes Christian existence in the evolutionary and historical context of the structures of existence.

Dean, William D., Love Before the Fall. Proposes a new understanding of love—aesthetic love—and its differences from agape and eros.

Lambert, Jean Christian, The Human Action of Forgiving. A Whiteheadian account of agency in general and forgiving in particular.

Meland, Bernard, The Reawakening of Christian Faith. The tragedy of life (esp. WWII) is challenged by Christian faith.

Pittenger, Norman, Cosmic Love and Human Wrong. Sin and sinfulness interpreted in process perspective.

Pittenger, Norman, Goodness Distorted. An account of evil and the love that is distorted by it.

Pittenger, Norman, Freed to Love: A Process Interpretation of Redemption. Pittenger shows how God, conceived as Love/Lover-in-Act, reconciles the world through Christ, so that people can be “freed to love.”

Stinson, Linda L., Process and Conscience: Toward a Theology of Human Emergence. Combines Whiteheadian philosophy with the theology of John Henry Newman developing a Christian theology of human emergence.

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3.0  The Church and its Ministry

Lee, Bernard, The Becoming of the Church. A Catholic ecclesiology in process perspective emphasizing connectedness through internal relations.

Pittenger, Norman, The Christian Church as Social Process, A good introduction to process thought focusing on the understanding of the church.

Pittenger, Norman, The Ministry of All Christians. A broad view of the church, focusing on the ministry of the laity.

Pittenger, Norman, Preaching the Gospell. A general introduction to homiletics in process perspective.

Pittenger, Norman, The Pilgrim Church and the Easter People. Public lectures delivered in Fall 1983 (Cleveland, Ohio) on the topic, “The Church and Its Ministry.”

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3.1 Religious Education

Durka, Gloria and Smith, Joan Marie, Modeling God. A brief but effective statement on Christian education.

Miller, Randolph Crump, The Language Gap and God: Religious Language and Christian Education. Language analysis and process thought and their relevance for Christian education.

Miller, Randolph Crump, The Theory of Christian Education Practice. A leader in the field of Christian education makes extensive use of the process perspective.

Moore, Mary Elizabeth, Education for Continuity and Change. The educational task of the church illumined by Whitehead and Mead.

Rosen, Harold, Religious Education and Our Ultimate Commitment: An Application of Henry Nelson Wieman's Philosophy of Creative Interchange. A process perspective on religious education, broadly conceived, by a Unitarian minister.

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3.2 Pastoral Care

Browning, Don S., Atonement and Psychotherapy. Interprets atonement in its relation to therapy and a process view of God.

Cobb, Jr., John B., Theology and Pastoral Care. Comments on how theology (of a process variety) can inform pastoral care, especially pastoral counseling.

Jackson, Gordon, Pastoral Care and Process Theology. A more technical presentation of how process categories enable theology to inform counseling.

Kinast, Robert L., Pastoral Theology and Death Experiences. Specific experiences theologically interpreted with practical implications explained.

Smith, Jr., Archie, The Relational Self: Ethics and Therapy from a Black Church Perspective. Combines therapy and ethics in contributing to personal and social transformation.

Williams, Daniel Day, The Minister and the Care of Souls. An important statement on ministry by a major process theologian.

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3.3 Prayer

Cobb, Jr., John B., To Pray or Not To Pray. Part of the “Prayer in My Life” series (Upper Room), containing Cobb’s personal reflections upon the role of prayer in his life.

Pittenger, Norman, Praying Today: Practical Thoughts on Prayer. Non-technical discussion of prayer—its definition, its goals, its exercise, and more.

Rowlett, Martha, In Spirit and in Truth. A guide to the practice of prayer written for lay people.
Carolyn Stahl, Opening to God. An introduction to guided imagery meditation based upon the Christian scriptures.

Sponheim, Paul R., ed., A Primer on Prayer. Collection of essays by various authors covering “The Heritage of Prayer,” “Understanding Prayer,” and “The Practice of Prayer.”

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4.0 Contemporary Theological Issues


4.1 Ecology & Animal Rights

Birch, Charles and Cobb, Jr., John B., The Liberation of Life. A wide-ranging treatment of biology, anthropology, ethics, theology and public policy based on an ecological model of life.

Cauthen, Kenneth, Christian Biopolitics. A vision of the future that takes the physical world seriously.

Cobb, John, Jr., Is It Too Late? A Theology of Ecology. A small popularly written statement of the needed philosophical and theological changes.

Dombrowski, Daniel A., Hartshorne and the Metaphysics of Animal Rights. Explains Hartshorne's views regarding God and animals, including human beings, and provides a defense for philosophical vegetarianism.

Grange, Joseph, Nature: An Environmental Cosmology. A breakthrough analysis of our environmental crisis.

Rust, Eric C., Nature: Garden or Desert? An Essay in Environmental Theology. Biblical, scientific, philosophical and theological perspectives are integrated.

Slusser, Gerald and Dorothy, Technology: The God that Failed. An early response to the awareness of the environmental crisis.

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4.2 Feminism

Devaney, Sheile, ed., Feminism and Process Thought. Essays displaying the overlap and mutual contributions of the two movements.

Dunfee, Susan, Beyond Servanthood: Christianity and the Liberation of Women. Argues for the importance of moving from Christianity as self-sacrificial service to mutuality and friendship.

Keller, Catherine, From a Broken Web: Separation, Sexism and Self. An important advance in feminist process theology, developing an original anthropology.

Washburn, Penelope, Becoming Woman. Process perspective informs this vision of woman's experience.

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4.3 Political and Liberation Theology

Brown,Delwin, To Set at Liberty. The process understanding of freedom is theologically developed in dialogue with liberation theologians.

Cobb,John, Process Theology as Political Theology. An appreciative but critical dialogue with German political theologians.

Cobb, John and Schroeder, Widick, eds., Process Philosophy and Social Thought. A collection of essays on social issues written by process theologians and their critics.

Schubert, Ogden, Faith and Freedom. An argument for maintaining the primacy of redemption while recognizing the great importance of political emancipation.

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4.4 Religious Language

Brown, Frank Burch, Transfiguration. A study of religious language in process perspective especially in relation to poetry.

Clarke, Bowman L., Language and Natural Theology. The work uses Whitehead’s view of metaphysics to show the relation between formal and religious language.

Franklin, Stephen, Speaking from the Depths. A detailed examination of Whitehead’s theory of language applied to religious experience.

Lundeen, Lyman, Risk and Rhetoric in Religion. A process approach to language locating the view in the context of the European discussion.

McFague, Sallie, Metaphorical Theology: Models of God in Religious Language. McFague presents insights into the nature of religious language, especially the use and function of metaphors and models.

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4.5 Science and Religion

Barbour, Ian, Issues in Science and Religion. A widely used text by a physicist-theologian relying extensively on Whitehead.

Birch, Charles, Nature and God. A biologist's reflection on the mutual implications of evolutionary science and Christian faith.

Cautben, Kenneth, Science, Secularization and God. Theology for the future in light of secularization and science.

Ferre, Frederick, Shaping the Future. Calls for a post-modern consciousness and shows its implications for religious, educational, political, and economic institutions.

Gilkey, Langdon, Religion and the Scientific Future. A theologian not usually identified with process thought uses Whitehead in this area.

Griffin, David Ray, ed., The Reenchantment of Science: Postmodern Proposals. Collection of essays describing the move from modern, mechanistic science to postmodern, organismic science. Includes essays on physics, biology, ecology, medicine, and more.

Haught, John F., The Cosmic Adventure. The discernment of purpose in nature in the light of science.

Overman, Richard E., Evolution and the Christian Doctrine of Creation. Shows how process conceptuality can interpret purpose in nature without positing one overarching goal.

Schilling, Harold, The New Consciousness in Science and Religion. A physicist with keen interest in religion finds Whitehead fruitful.

Stewart, Claude Y., Nature in Grace. Examines nature from a variety of perspectives including that of a Whiteheadian theology.

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4.6 Sexuality

Breazeale, Kathlyn A., Beardslee, William A., Teenage Sexuality and Spirituality: Can These Two Become One? A P&F hard issues booklet, February, 1992.

Kilsby, Mary Ellen, Cobb, John B., and Beardslee, William A. What Shall the Church Say About Homosexuality? A P&F hard issues booklet. June, 1992. Revised, February, 1993.

Pittenger,Norman, Love and Control in Sexuality. The norms of sexuality are found in love alone.

Pittenger,Norman,Making Sexuality Human. An ethic of sexuality that includes an affirmation of its homosexual expression.

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4.7 Spirituality

Bruce Epperly, At the Edges of Life (Chalice, 1992). A process theology and spirituality of death and dying.

____________, Crystal and Cross: Christians and the New Age in Creative Dialogue (Twenty-Third, 1996). Uses a process relational metaphysic to build a bridge between mainstream and liberal Christianity and the new age movement.

____________, Spirituality and Health, Health and Spirituality (Twenty Third, 1997). A practical theology of health, healing, and prayer.

____________, God's Touch: Faith, Wholeness, and the Healing Miracles of Jesus (Westminster/John Knox, 2001). Explores the healings of Jesus in dialogue with contemporary spirituality, complementary and global medicine, and the new physics.

____________, The Power of Affirmative Faith: A Spirituality of Personal Transformation (Chalice, 2001). The most comprehensive process-relational book on spiritual formation, not only painting a picture of process spirituality, but providing spiritual disciplines that join process-relational thinking with tradition spiritual formation.

 ____________, and Rabbi Lewis Solomon, Mending the World: Spiritual Hope for Ourselves and Our Planet (Innisfree, 2002). A Jewish-Christian process of spiritual formation for challenging times.

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4.8 World Religions/Religious Pluralism

Cobb, Jr., John B., Beyond Dialogue. How full openness to others, especially Buddhists, can lead to mutual transformation.

Ingram, Paul 0., The Modern Buddhist-Christian Dialogue: Two Universalistic Religions in Transformation. Process thought used in a discussion of interfaith dialogue.

Jacobson, Nolan Pliny, Buddhism and the Contemporary World. The first book in a trilogy explaining Buddhism and comparing Buddhism with process thought.

Jacobson, Nolan Pliny, Understanding Buddhism. The second book in Jacobson’s trilogy.

Jacobson, Nolan Pliny, The Heart of Buddhist Philosophy. The third book in Jacobson’s trilogy.

Neville, Robert, The Tao and the Daimon. Broad-ranging reflections on religion and the religions.

Nordgulen, George, Perspectives in World Religions, Vol 1. Shows how a process theism can go far toward integrating the contributions of major religious traditions.

Odin, Steve, Process Metaphysics and Hua-Yen Buddhism. Displays their similarity, arguing for certain advantages in each.

Suchocki, Marjorie, Divinity and Diversity: A Christian Affirmation of Religious Pluralism. In accessible language, explains how the doctrines of Christian faith affirm diversity as rooted in the very nature and purposes of God.

Williamson, Clark, Has God Rejected His People? Reformulation of Christian teaching to overcome Christian anti-Judaism.

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5.0 Philosophy of Religion

5.1 Whitehead

Science and the Modern World. This shows how modern science interacted with other intellectual and cultural traditions including Christianity and provides the outline of the needed more organic understanding of nature.

Religion in the Making. Whitehead’s major work on religion.

Modes of Thought. A mature statement, quite non-technical. It may prove deceptively simple.

Adventures of Ideas. Chapters are uneven in difficulty, but most of the book is accessible to the non-specialist. It includes a summary of the position developed in Process and Reality.

Process and Reality. Very difficult in parts, but the last part, “God and the World,” contains Whitehead’s most extensive discussion about God.

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5.2 Whitehead—Secondary Sources

Norman Pittenger, Alfred North Whitehead. The shortest and simplest introduction.

Victor Lowe, Understanding Whitehead. This provides both biographical information and an explanation of major features of his thought.

Ivor Leclerc, Whitehead’s Metaphysics. Those familiar with classical philosophy will find this an excellent introduction.

Paul Kuntz, Alfred North Whitehead. A biographical and philosophical introduction.

A. E. Johnson, Whitehead’s Theory of Reality. A good orientation by one of Whitehead’s own students.

William A. Christian, An Interpretation of Whitehead’s Metaphysics. A major analytic study, especially of Process and Reality.

Elizabeth Kraus, The Metaphysics of Experience: A Companion to Whitehead’s Process and Reality. Very helpful for anyone tackling Whitehead’s magnum opus.

Lewis Ford, The Emergence of Whitehead’s Metaphysics. Analyzes the stages of Whitehead's development not only between books but also within them.

Kenneth F. Thompson, Jr., Whitehead’s Philosophy of Religion. A descriptive account of Whitehead’s own views.

Donald Sherburne, A Key to Process and Reality. Selections from Process and Reality are organized and explained in a way that makes them accessible to the general philosophically inclined reader.

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5.3 Charles Hartshorne

Beyond Humanism. An early work pointing the way beyond the impasse of classical theism and atheistic humanism, an impasse that seems to have become important again.

Man’s Vision of God. Hartshorne richly develops his ideas about God and arguments in favor of belief.

The Divine Relativity. Hartshorne’s most sustained polemic against the sheer Absolute of classical theism.

Natural Theology for Our Time. Hartshorne organizes his major contributions to religious thought as a natural theology.

Creative Synthesis and Philosophic Method. Although this does not focus on philosophy of religion, it clarifies the wider vision within which Hartshorne’s thought about religion is set.

Omnipotence and Other Theological Mistakes. Hartshorne’s most popularly written book is a lively polemic against features of traditional theism to which process theologians object.

Wisdom as Moderation: A Philosophy of the Middle Way . Philosophical wisdom presented as a mean between extremes, in both theory and practice.

Insights and Oversights of Great Thinkers: An Evaluation of Western Philosophy. Hartshorne takes a fresh look at the Occidental philosophical tradition.

Born to Sing. Based on a hypothesis generated by process thought, Hartshorne amasses evidence that one reason birds sing is for subjective enjoyment.

Philosophy and Psychology of Sensation. Shows that different senses particularize common emotional tones or affects.

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5.4 Secondary Sources—Hartshorne

Cobb, Jr., John B. and Gamwell, Franklin I., eds., Existence and Actuality: Conversations with Charles Hartshorne. A collection of essays, both critical and supportive, about Hartshorne's views; Hartshorne provides a response to each essay.

Devaney, Sheila Greene, Divine Power: A Study of Karl Barth and Charles Hartshorne. A study of two of the 20th- century’s most influential thinkers.

Gragg, Alan, Hartshorne, Charles. A volume in the Makers of the Modern Theological Mind series, making Hartshorne accessible to lay people.

Kane, Robert, and Phillips, Stephen R., eds., Hartshorne: Process Philosophy and Theology. A collection of papers beginning with a thorough exposition of Hartshorne’s thought by David Griffin and concluding with Hartshorne’s largely appreciative response to each essay.

Moskop, John C., Divine Omniscience and Human Freedom. Compares Thomas Aquinas and Hartshorne on this topic, favoring Hartshorne.

Sia, Santiago, God in Process Thought. One of the best secondary accounts of Hartshorne’s contributions to philosophy of religion.

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5.5 Cobb

Cobb, John, A Christian Natural Theology. Whitehead’s philosophy is adopted and adapted for Christian use.

5.6 Philosophy of Religion—Other Authors

Dean, William, and Axel, Larry E., The Size of God: The Theology of Bernard Loomer in Context. Loomer’s “The Size of God” essay plus responses by other process thinkers to that essay.

Frankenberry, Nancy, Religion and Radical Empiricism. A study of radical empiricism and how such empiricism can be involved in justifying religious truth claims.

Griffin, David Ray, Beardslee, William A., and Holland, Joe, Varieties of Postmodern Theology. Dialogue between constructive postmodern theology and each of three other forms of postmodern theology-deconstructive, liberationist, and conservative.

Griffin, David Ray, God and Religion in the Postmodern World: Essays in Postmodern Theology. Griffin presents portions of a postmodern, natural theism--deeply religious and fully scientific.

Meland, Bernard, Fallible Forms and Symbols. Meland draws on a wide stream of American philosophy and religious thought and employs it for interpreting culture.

Nordgulen, George and Shields, George W., ed., Faith and Creativity: Essays in Honor of Eugene E. Peters. Collection of essays by process thinkers on a variety of topics.

Thompson, Jr., Kenneth E., Whitehead’s Philosophy of Religion. A careful study of the philosophy of religion found in Whitehead’s own writings.

Wolf-Gazo, Ernest, ed., Process in Context: Essays in Post-Whiteheadian Perspectives. A collection of process writers continue the dialogue ,with Whitehead, each writer in their own field of research.

Wood, Forrest, Whiteheadian Thought as a Basis for a Philosophy of Religion. An attempt to show how Whitehead's thought can be used to illuminate the problem of evil and the question of immortality.

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6.0 Process Thought in Other Fields

6.1 Art, Culture, and Language

Allan, George, The Importance of the Past: A Meditation on the Authority of Tradition. Examines how tradition creates and sustains meaningful structures of social order, the role of emotion in the transformation of everyday experience into an awareness of the past.

Cappon, A. P., About Wordsworth and Whitehead. Compares the two thinkers biographically and intellectually.

Crosby, Donald A., The Specter of the Absurd: Sources and Criticisms of Modern Nihilism. A sensitive explanation of the pervasiveness of nihilistic tendencies showing how a process perspective can provide a more convincing alternative.

Dean, William, Coming To: A Theology of Beauty. Affirms beauty as more fundamental than goodness or truth as the context of theology.

Garvey, Edwin C., Process Theology and Secularization.

Hall, David L., The Civilization of Experience. A theory of culture from a Whiteheadian point of view.

Langer, Susanne, Feeling and Form. A student of Whitehead has written major original treatises on art showing Whitehead’s influence.

Martin, F. D., Art and Religious Experience. An emphasis on participative experience informed by Heidegger and Whitehead.

Meland, Bernard, The Secularization of Modern Cultures. The nature and causes of secularization with reflections on the place of religion.

Meland, Bernard, The Realities of Faith: The Revolution in Cultural Forms. Essays, growing out the Barrows Lectures (India and Burma), in which Meland deals with Christianity in a world context.

Regan, John, ed., Whitehead and Lamb: A New Network of Connection. Verbatim of a conference on language.

Ross, S. D., A Theory of Art. Emphasizes a synthetic approach to art influenced by Whitehead.

Sherburne, Donald, A Whiteheadian Aesthetic. A rigorously developed aesthetic theory making systematic use of Whitehead’s influence.

Wyman, Mary, The Lure for Feeling. Relates Whitehead’s thought to Wordsworth among many others.

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6.2 Biological Sciences

Agar, W. E., The Theory of the Living Organism. An early but still useful study of biology based on Whitehead's conceptuality.

Cobb, John, and Griffin, David, ed., Mind in Nature. Leading biologists and process philosophers treat evolutionary theory.

Lillie, Ralph S., General Biology and Philosophy of Organism. Living beings are psycho-physical systems.

Sheldrake, Rupert, A New Science of Life. Partly influenced by Whitehead, and remarkably congenial, Sheldrake’s controversial theory deserves full consideration.

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6.3 Education

Brumbaugh, Robert, Whitehead, Process Philosophy, and Education. A collection of essays by a leading philosopher.

Dunkel, Harold B., Whitehead on Education. Creative advance by patterning available data.

Holmes, Henry W., The Educational Views of Whitehead. Emphasis on growth, utility, rhythmic process, ending in religion, aesthetics and adventure.

Meland, Bernard E., Higher Education and the Human Spirit. Emotion bears on analysis, poetry on metaphysics.

Oliver, Donald, and Gershman, Kathleen, Education, Modernity, and Fractured Meaning. Develops process educational theory as an alternative to the discrete functionalism of modernity.

Whitehead, A. N., The Aims of Education. Whitehead’s own philosophy of education continues to attract attention among educational theories.

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6.4 Ethics and Value Theory

Belaief, Lynne, Towards a Whiteheadian Ethics. The first book-length treatment of ethics in Whiteheadian terms.

Cauthen, Kenneth, Process Ethics: A Constructive System. The most comprehensive treatment of ethics, philosophical, theological, and social, from a process perspective.

Cauthen, Kenneth, The Passion for Equality. Historical survey of equality in the United States and a proposal for integrating equality into societal structures in the United States

Cauthen, Kenneth, The Ethics of Enjoyment. Practical guidance in a technological society.
Gray, James R., Process Ethics. A brief systematization of Whitehead's contribution to the understanding of moral decisions.

Swyhart, Barbara, Bio-ethical Decision Making. The first book to reflect on bio-ethics from a process perspective.

Wieman, Henry Nelson, The Source of Human Good. A major essay on value theory and theology by an original process thinker.

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6.5 General

Emmet, Dorothy, The Effectiveness of Causes. Critical of Whitehead for subjectivizing causal relations.

David Ray Griffin, ed., Spirituality and Society: Postmodern Visions. Presents both a critique of modernity and a spirituality that transcends individualism.

Ford, Marcus, ed., A Process Theology of Medicine: Interdisciplinary Essays. A collection of essays that begin to use process thought as a basis for a holistic model of health care.

Sibley, Jack and Gunter, Pete, ed., Process Philosophy: Basic Writings. A collection of essays on epistemology, metaphysics, ethics, and aesthetics.

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6.6 Philosophy of Science

Whitehead, A. N., Essays in Science and Philosophy. A collection of essays by Whitehead on wide-ranging topics.

Whitehead, A. N., Principles of Natural Knowledge. A quite technical discussion of conceptual foundations of modern science.

Plamondon, Ann, Whitehead’s Organic Philosophy of Science. This locates Whitehead's philosophy of science in the current discussion.

Mays, Wolfe, Whitehead’s Philosophy of Science and Metaphysics. A British philosopher interprets Whitehead's contribution in a manner more acceptable to dominant contemporary ways of thinking.

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6.7 Physics & Mathematics

Bohm, David, Wholeness and the Implicate Order. A new model of reality, compatible with process thought, from a noted physicist.

Bohm, David and Peat, F. David, Science, Order, and Creativity. Two physicists collaborate to produce a highly readable book reflecting a wholistic view of the cosmos with affinity to process thought.

Burgers, J. M., Experience and Conceptual Activity. A physicist uses Whitehead's thought for the unification of science and values.

Code, Murray, Order and Organism. Mathematics and natural science in process perspective.

Griffin, David, ed., Physics and the Ultimate Significance of Time. Ilya Prigogine, David Bohm, and Henry Stapp interact with process philosophers and theologians.

Henry, Jr., Granville C., Logos: Mathematics and Christian Theology. Shows the influence of Greek mathematics upon Judeo-Christian theology and indicates how recent changes in mathematics can impact contemporary theology.

Kitchener, Richard F., ed., The World View of Contemporary Physics: Does It Need a New Metaphysics? Collection of essays by physicists and philosophers.

Leclerc, Ivor, The Nature of Physical Existence. In this comprehensive survey of the history of the philosophy of nature, Whitehead's important role becomes clear.

Palter, Robert, Whitehead’s Philosophy of Science. A relational theory of space and time avoids difficulties in the classical concept of the material world.

Prigogine, Ilya and Stengers, Isabelle, Order out of Chaos: Man’s New Dialogue with Nature. A history of conceptual transformations in science, from classical science to the present.

Whitehead, Alfred North, An Introduction to Mathematics. Whitehead’s only textbook writing—a good one.

Whitehead, Alfred North, The Principle of Relativity. Although Whitehead’s theory is quite different from Einstein’s and has been largely ignored, it is still viable and may come into its own.

Zygon Vol. 20, No. 2, David Bohm's Implicate Order: Physics, Philosophy, and Theology, 11.

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6.8 Social Sciences

Beer, Samuel R., The City of Reason. A liberal political philosophy derived from Whitehead.

Gamwell, Franklin, Beyond Preference. A political theory making use of Whitehead’s philosophy.

Kleinbach, Russell, Marx via Process. Implications of Whitehead’s conceptuality for the clarification and development of Marxist social theory.

Laszlo, Ervin, Essential Society: An Ontological Reconstruction. An inclusive approach to the study of society influenced by Whitehead.

Neville, Robert, The Cosmology of Freedom. Treatment of both personal and social freedom in the broader stream of process thought.

Schroeder, W. Widick, Cognitive Structures and Religious Research. A study of the relationship of sociology and theology from a process perspective

Schroeder, W. Widick and Gamwell, Franklin, Economic Life: Process Interpretations and Critical Responses. Six essays on economic life and political economy by different authors; each essay is followed by a response from a religious social ethicist.

Sturm, Douglas, ed., Belonging Together: Faith & Politics in a Relational World. These essays show the practical application of process thought to such issues as politics, racism, justice, ecology and global democracy. Provides a model of how theological reflection leads us through moral judgment to political action.

Sturm, Douglas, Community and Alienation: Essays on Process Thought and Public Life. Essays emphasizing internal relations and a communitarian political theory, realism without pessimism.

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7.0  Bibliographies

Anyone interested in more detailed information on books, articles, dissertations, and unpublished papers on any of the above topics or others may write the Center for Process Studies, 1325 N. College Ave., Claremont, CA 91711. This service (within reason) is free for members.

Or consult the following:
Ford, Lewis S., ed., Process Studies, 1971.  

Lucas, George R., The Genesis of Modern Process Thought: A Historical Outline With Bibliography.

Woodbridge, Barry A., ed. Alfred North Whitehead: A Primary-Secondary Bibliography.

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